Don Garcia Lopez de Cardenas

Description:

  • He was a Spanish Conquistador
  • He was the first cousin to Francisco Vazquez de Coronado
  • First person to explore The Grand Canyon
  • He was the only one in Coronado’s expedition that was convicted of War Crimes
  • He was present at the Muster Roll
  • He was almost always seen with his hand on his hip.

Summary:


He was one of the first people to explore/step foot on the Grand Canyon. He was at the muster roll under the duty of captain. He was on the expedition led by Pedro de Tobar on the quest for Cibola. He was one of the people trusted to talk to the natives as they surrounded the village. Also one of the higher class people given the stuff he brought to the Muster Roll with him. At the Muster Roll he brought twelve horses, sword, three sets of Castilian arms and armor, two pairs of breast plates, and chain mail vest. He was of great importance because throughout everything that happened on the Coronado expedition Cardenas was the only convicted on War crimes for the events that happened in the Tiguex War. He was also one of the few guys to have heavy armor and a feather helmet.

Analysis:

Because he was Coronado’s first cousin there was some information about him that was easily found, but there were multiple resources that had to be used. I actually found this information using two seperate websites. One was a page from an artist who was fascinated by the events that took place because of Cardenas, and the other was a page that i don’t know exactly how credible the information from this site was, but the other sites i used did back up the information found on this specific page. The artist talking about Cardenas is a very credible man, he even painted a picture of Cardenas using the information he knew about the man. It is a very good descriptive page, it offered me a lot of information i needed to know about him, it even offered up the facial features of Cardenas. I find the artist page very credible and it did offer up a lot of background on the person.

Sources:

Primary Sources

Najera, Pedro De Castaneda De. The Journey of Coronado 1540-1542. PDF. New York: A.S. Barnes & Co, 1904. [a first-hand account of the Coronado adventure told by someone who was actually there]

Winship, George Parker. “The Journey of Coronado, 1540-1542: From the City of Mexico to the Grand … : Pedro De Castañeda De Nájera, George Parker Winship, Francisco Vázquez De Coronado , Antonio De Mendoza , Juan Camilo Jaramillo : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming.” Internet Archive. January 01, 1970. Accessed March 3, 2019. [Another source written by someone who was actually on the expedition] https://archive.org/details/journeycoronado02jaragoog/page/n54.

Secondary Sources:

Walters, Curt. “”Ordering Descent, 1540: Lopez De Cardenas” -Historical Study.” Curt Walters. August 14, 2016. Accessed March 21, 2019. https://www.curtwalters.com/cardenas-ordering-descent-history/. [Provided me with information about Cardenas and the artists fascination with Cardenas]

Editors, History.com. “Francisco Vázquez De Coronado.” History.com. November 09, 2009. Accessed March 12, 2019. https://www.history.com/topics/exploration/francisco-vazquez-de-coronado. [Tells about Coronado and his expedition]

Hernando De Alvarado

Description:

  • He was a native of the small town of Las Montañas in Northern Spain
  • He became the artillery captain at the age of 22
  • He was very wealthy for his age
  • Important to Coronado’s Expedition
  • He was one of the youngest captains in the military

Summary:

He as an important person to Coronado’s expedition this is because he was a rich man for his age and because most the men come from the lower class or even middle-ish they didn’t come with much money or tools to defend themselves in case of War. Alvarado played the important role of funding the whole artillery company he led, he supplied his men with gear needed for the journey, this helped them out because it provided the men with the gear needed to defend themselves and all the others in the march, and because their the artillery platoon they carry probably one of the most important roles in the march as part of the defense. some of the stuff he carried with him was four horses, a vest with sleeves, and native arms and armor. And some of the “artillery” of the expedition was 25 matchlock arabesques, 20 crossbows, six small-bore swivel guns, caved versillos. He was entrusted with many small expeditions as well, he remained loyal throughout his entire military experience until he retired in Mexico City.

Analysis:

Because of his importance to the military and his wealth for the weapons there were a few websites that proved helpful when finding information on Alvarado. The Office of the State Historian State Records Center & Archives located in Santa Fe, New Mexico. He retired to Mexico after his time in the military and their archives have a lot of information about his time with Coronado up till his death. Historical archives tend to be pretty accurate and given that there were not other places discrediting or arguing that this information is false i tend to believe this source is true to its word. I found it very helpful because it helped give more background on Alvarado that i couldn’t find anywhere else.

Sources:

Primary Sources:

Najera, Pedro De Castaneda De. The Journey of Coronado 1540-1542. PDF. New York: A.S. Barnes & Co, 1904.

Winship, George Parker. “The Journey of Coronado, 1540-1542: From the City of Mexico to the Grand … : Pedro De Castañeda De Nájera, George Parker Winship, Francisco Vázquez De Coronado , Antonio De Mendoza , Juan Camilo Jaramillo : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming.” Internet Archive. January 01, 1970. Accessed March 3, 2019. https://archive.org/details/journeycoronado02jaragoog/page/n54.

Secondary Sources:

Alexander, Kathy Weiser. “Francisco Vazquez De Coronado – Exploring the Southwest.” Legends of America. June 2018. Accessed March 3, 2019. https://www.legendsofamerica.com/francisco-vazquez-de-coronado/.

Flint, Richard, and Shirley Cushing Flint. “People.” New Mexico Office of the State Historian. Accessed March 20, 2019. http://newmexicohistory.org/people/hernando-de-alvarado.